基本资料

毛地黄(Digitalis purpurea L) 为二年生或多年生草本植物。以前的分类法将其列入玄参科,现代根据基因分析的分类将其更正为车前科。本属植物原生于中亚和亚洲西部、非洲西北以及欧洲西部和西南。

人工栽培品种有白、粉和深红色等,一般分为白花自由钟,大花自由钟,重瓣自由钟。常用于花境、花坛及岩石园中,还可作自然式花卉布置。

形态特征

二年生或多年生草本,除花冠外,全体被灰白色短柔毛和腺毛,有时茎上几无毛,高60-120厘米。茎单生或数条成丛。基生叶多数成莲座状,叶柄具狭翅,长可达15厘米;叶片卵形或长椭圆形,长5-15厘米,先端尖或钝,基部渐狭,边缘具带短尖的圆齿,少有锯齿;茎生叶下部的与基生叶同形,向上渐小,叶柄短直至无柄而成为苞片。

萼钟状,长约1厘米,果期略增大,5裂几达基部;裂片矩圆状卵形,先端钝至急尖;花冠紫红色,内面具斑点,长3-4.5厘米,裂片很短,先端被白色柔毛。

蒴果卵形,长约1.5厘米。种子短棒状,除被蜂窝状网纹外,尚有极细的柔毛。花期5-6月。

生长习性及分布

分布在海拔1200-1800公尺的山区,较耐寒和耐干旱、但忌炎热,也能适应瘠薄的土壤。喜阳且耐荫,适宜在湿润而排水良好的土壤上生长。

原产欧洲,台湾各地有零星栽培,如阿里山、太平山、清境农场、南天池等地,有大量归化。

繁殖方法

常用播种繁殖和种子繁殖,育苗移栽培直播。

1、南方采用平畦或高畦育苗,北方多采用阳畦育苗,阳畦内用腐熟的马粪作底肥,将肥粒与床土充分混拦后整平,3月上旬播种,按6cm的行距条播或撒播,盖薄席保温。一般上午10时左右打开薄席,下午4时盖席促湿。在5月中旬幼苗长到3-5片叶时,按行株距30cm×20cm定植到大田,栽后浇水。

2、直播法省工,北方于4月上、中旬土壤解冻后,或11月土壤冻结前播种;南方宜晚秋播种。可用种子直接播种,也可用20℃温水催芽播种。

主要用途与价值

绿化价值

适于盆栽,若在温室中促成栽培,可在早春开花。因其高大、花序花形方面的特点,可在花境、花坛、岩石园中应用。可作自然式花卉布置。

药用价值

毛地黄为重要的强心药,可兴奋心肌,增强心肌的收缩力,改善血液循环,或直接抑制心内传导系统,使心率减慢,主治慢性充血性心力衰竭,对心脏性水肿有显著利尿消肿作用,但行积蓄作用,用时须注意。

1、增强心肌收缩力的作用,在强心甙作用下,心肌收缩增强的特点为:

(1)使心肌收缩敏捷强心甙能增强心肌收缩时的张力,加快心肌收缩速度,表现为室内压最大上升速度增高,因而心肌收缩敏捷有力,使心动周期中的收缩期缩短,舒张期延长,有利于静脉回流;

(2)增加衰竭心脏的输出量;

(3)提高衰竭心脏的效率。

2、减慢心衰心脏心率的作用。

3、对心肌传导性、自律性和不应期的影响:

提取毛地黄皂苷

毛地黄皂苷,从紫花毛地黄的叶和种子中得到的一种配糖体。甾体皂角苷的一种,水解时,可生成作为糖苷配基部分的一分子毛地黄皂苷配基,而作为糖的部分有2分子的D-葡萄糖和2分子一半乳糖以及1分子的木糖。这些糖部分是结合到毛地黄皂苷配基的第三碳原子的羟基上。因为它能和具有游离3β-OH的甾体类(例如胆甾醇)以等分子的比例形成难溶于水的分子化合物的毛地黄皂苷化合物,因此,这种特性被利用来进行甾醇的定性和分离。

植物文化

名字的由来

毛地黄是典型的归化植物,他的故乡远在西欧温带地区。它之所以被叫做毛地黄,是因为它有著布满茸毛的茎叶及酷似地黄的叶片,因而得毛地黄名;又因为它来自遥远的欧洲,因此又称为洋地黄。

传说

传说坏妖精将毛地黄的花朵送给狐狸,让狐狸把花套在脚上,以降低它在毛地黄间觅食所发出的脚步声,因此毛地黄还有另一个名字——狐狸手套。此外,毛地黄还有其他如巫婆手套、狐狸套、仙女手套、死人之钟等别名。[14]

花语:谎言。

对于植物来病害和虫害是它们永远最大的敌人,今天我们来聊聊关于毛地黄的病害和虫害的危害和防治方法。
添加时间:2018年03月08日 更新时间:2018年03月08日
在自然界中,有很多美丽的事物表面上人畜无害,实际上却带着锋利的尖刺甚至致命的毒素。今天我们要讨论的也是一种非常漂亮的植物——毛地黄,很多花友都想知道它到底有没有毒性,一起去看看。
添加时间:2018年03月07日 更新时间:2018年03月08日
毛地黄,是常见的绿化植被,一般播种后要第二年才能开花,成丛养殖开花后有花色各异,争奇斗艳十分壮观。那么,毛地黄该如何养殖呢?下面小编就给大家详细介绍。
添加时间:2018年03月07日 更新时间:2018年03月07日
毛地黄咋一听就知道有一股浓浓的中药味儿,不了解它的人很难想象得到,它的花卉竟如此漂亮,常被用作园林绿化和家居装饰。此外毛地黄还具有一定的药用价值。那么毛地黄具体的功效和作用有哪些呢?下面一起来看看。
添加时间:2018年03月07日 更新时间:2018年03月08日

毛地黄的资料

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添加时间:2018年03月07日 更新时间:2018年03月07日

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